quarta-feira, 29 de outubro de 2008

A água subterrânea é um recurso natural valioso que, enquanto tal, deve ser protegido da deterioração e da poluição química. Essa protecção é ...


Decreto-Lei n.º 208/2008 de 28 de Outubro

Januário disse...

Decreto-Lei n.º 208/2008, D.R. n.º 209, Série I de 2008-10-28
Ministério do Ambiente, do Ordenamento do Território e do Desenvolvimento Regional
Estabelece o regime de protecção das águas subterrâneas contra a poluição e deterioração, transpondo para a ordem jurídica interna a Directiva n.º 2006/118/CE, do Parlamento Europeu e do Conselho, de 12 de Dezembro, relativa à protecção da água subterrânea contra a poluição e deterioração

A água subterrânea é um recurso natural valioso que, enquanto tal, deve ser protegido da deterioração e da poluição química. Essa protecção é particularmente importante no que respeita aos ecossistemas dependentes da água subterrânea e à utilização desta para o abastecimento de água destinada ao consumo humano. A água subterrânea representa as massas de água doce mais sensíveis e importantes da União Europeia, sendo uma fonte essencial de abastecimento público de água potável em muitas regiões, devendo ser protegida de forma a evitar a deterioração da qualidade, a fim de reduzir o nível do tratamento de purificação necessário à produção de água potável.

Continua em:

Decreto-Lei n.º 208/2008 de 28 de Outubro in
http://www.dre.pt/pdf1sdip/2008/10/20900/0756907575.PDF

28 de Outubro de 2008 19:02

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Januário disse...

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At present, groundwater is the main source of domestic-potable water supply in most
European countries (Water Economy Prospects for 1990 and 2000, 1982). Thus, groundwater portion
in a general balance of domestic-potable water supply exceeds 70% in Austria, Armenia, Byelorussia,
Belgium, Hungary, Georgia, Denmark, Lithuania, Switzerland and Germany, and amounts
from 50 to 70% in Bulgaria, Italy, Portugal, Ukraine and France. Groundwater is a basis for water
supplying of rural areas, small and large towns and in some regions cities with population
exceeding 1 mln.p.

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The hydrogeological massifs of the Pyrenean Peninsula are characterized by diverse
groundwater runoff generation conditions. Within the Iberian fold system, discharge values
increase from north-west to south-east from 0.1–1 to 1–3 l/s.km2 which is due to precipitation and
the gradual predominance of Mesozoic karstified limestones and fractured sandstones. The distribution
of discharge values over the Mesetian massif is primarily governed by precipitation.
According to this distribution, groundwater resources gradually decrease from north to south
(from 5–3 to 1–0.1 l/s .km2). The prevailing climatic factor effect, here, is explained by the predominance
of one type of groundwater flow media, fractured metamorphic and intrusive rocks.
The Castilian artesian basin, situated between hydrogeological massifs, is distinguished by
the broad occurrence of porous and porous-fractured media, whose water conducting properties
depend on the total thickness of water-bearing interlayers and the total clay content of the
deposits. More permeable and relatively thick water-bearing deposits are encountered in the
northern depression of the basin which together with high precipitation leads to groundwater
discharge amounting to 1–3 l/s.km2. In the southern depression, average discharge values usually
do not exceed 1 l/s.km2 and they are larger only in valleys of some rivers.
A peculiarity of groundwater generation conditions in the Western Portuguese basin is that
groundwater flow media sharply change along the Tajo valley. The groundwater of the Mesozoic
karstified limestone in the north has favorable recharge conditions, above all, high precipitation
whose annual total equals 2,000 mm. In the south, in sandy and clayey media, discharge values
decrease down to 1–2 l/s .km2 owing to slower groundwater circulation and smaller precipitation
(500 mm/yr).

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However, in some countries groundwater plays an essential role for water supply of
large cities and towns (with populations of more than 0.5 millions (Vartanyan et al., 1993; Shevelev
and Orlov, 1987). In general, more than 90% of big cities and towns are supplied exclusively by
groundwater. Among them are such major cities as Vienna, Hamburg, Munich, Berlin, Rome,
Budapest, Yerevan, Voronezh, Krasnodar, Lvov, Vilnius and Tula. Public water supply for cities
such as Brussels, Copenhagen, Paris, Minsk, Tbilisi, Ufa, Riga use groundwater for more than 60%.
Groundwater is vital (more than 20%) for water supplies of such cities as Lisbon, Zurich, Kharkov,
Kiev, Baku, and others.
A large amount of groundwater used for rural water supply is mainly for irrigation. The
total withdrawal for these purposes accounts for more than 17 km3/yr. Groundwater is
widely used for irrigation in countries of South Europe and Transcaucasia (e.g., Spain, Italy,
France, Greece, Portugal, Azerbaijan, Armenia). In the above countries groundwater
withdrawal for irrigation ranges from 0.7 to 5 km3/yr. Nevertheless, groundwater is used
for irrigation not only in countries with arid climate but in those of more favorable
hydrogeological conditions. For example in the Netherlands during dry years, groundwater
withdrawal for irrigation purposes has increased up to 0.3 km3/yr.

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Data analysis given in Table 5.1.3.2 show that the intensity of groundwater withdrawal in
different countries is distinguishable. In countries such as Byelorussia, Great Britain, Greece,
Georgia, Spain, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Romania, FRG, Finland, France, Switzerland, Sweden,
Yugoslavia the present withdrawal does not exceed 30–35% of the natural resources or potential
reserves and there are tendencies for a considerable increase in groundwater withdrawal. Groundwater
in Azerbaijan, Armenia, Bulgaria, Denmark, Lithuania, Moldova, the Netherlands, Ukraine,
FRG, Czechia and Slovakia are being intensively exploited. However, in the above countries the
potential of increasing groundwater use exists. The data given in the table are characteristic of the
countries considered on the whole. However, in most countries, due to the irregular distribution of
natural and potential reserves over separate regions, public water supply problems should be
solved using surface water even in the case when the situation in the country on the whole is
favorable. Although in most countries of Europe groundwater is the main source of domestic and
drinking water supply in the future. In some countries, referring to the paper (6), the total weight
of groundwater use will be decreased (Belgium, Greece, Poland, Czechia and Slovakia).

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Thus, in conclusion, it is reasonable to briefly formulate the main tasks of further scientific
and practical investigations on the problem considered.
These tasks are the following:

to improve the available and to develop new methods for assessing groundwater resources
accounting for natural measures;

to develop and put into practice nature-protecting criteria determining the acceptable
impact of groundwater withdrawal on other components of the environment, and also the
acceptable effect of anthropogenic activities on ground-water resources and quality;

to perfect the available and to develop new methods for predicting changes in groundwater
resources and quality under intensive anthropogenic activities and possible climate changes:

to substantiate the principles of conducting groundwater monitoring in different naturalclimatic
and anthropogenic conditions as a component of the general monitoring of water
resources and the environment;

to improve methods of assessing groundwater vulnerability to pollution in the main
aquifers used for water supply;

to perfect methods of artificial groundwater recharge and to use them more widely in active
well fields;

to develop mathematical models of interaction between ground- and marine water in
different geologic-hydrogeologic conditions of the coastal zones and also methods for
predicting marine-water intrusion into the aquifers under intensified groundwater
withdrawal by coastal well fields;

to develop and to put into practice legislative norms emphasizing preferred use of fresh
groundwater of high quality primarily for drinking and domestic water supply.

Solving these problems will considerably increase the effective use of groundwater.


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REFERENCES

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LLAMAS, M.R. (1997).Transboundary Water Resources in the Iberian Peninsula, in ‘Conflict and the
Environment’, Gleditsch, P. (ed.), Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp. 335–53.

(…)”

In: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001344/134433e.pdf

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